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   Sep 22

Money supply chain and stock prices

Money supply faithfully shows economic well-being of the country. It impacts market prices and relations between subjects of the economy. Though free markets are intended to stimulate businesses and regulate prices with their demand, supply, and competition, governmental regulation is required to keep markets viable.

The amount of available money determines the purchasing power of individuals that in its turn affects interest rates of banks and prices in the stock market. Money supply is the basic economic variable that describes the abundance or scarcity of money. If the economy and its subjects thrive, people are willing to invest in stocks that are riskier but more profitable investment instruments than bonds. When the economy is down, customers are motivated to keep their money, which makes borrowing rates and mortgage rates low. Recession is a threat to the stock market because customers will immediately withdraw their money from stocks.

Money supply sets the pace for the economy, and the US Federal Reserve Board carefully watches over the current money supply to control it if necessary. Through buying or selling its Treasury Bills, the Federal Reserve adds money into the economy or withdraws it. Consequently, the interest rates change. If there is a lot of money in the economy, they are cheap for people to borrow. But economic players are not interested in lending their money for such a low profit. Investing money in stocks can bring a bigger revenue on condition that money supply is high.

   Sep 22

Effects of free cash flow on profitability of firms

Free cash flow comprises the net income of a company without capital expenditures and dividends. Free cash flow usually remains after the company has paid all its expenses, including investments. However, some businesses choose to invest a lot so that their free cash flow becomes negative. It is normal as long as the company earns enough returns on the investments. As for the rest, free cash flow is a faithful indicator of the financial wellness of companies.

The significance of free cash flow towards the profitability of firms is supported by the detailed economic research. The most recent study conducted in 2015 examined the impact of free cash flow on firms listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange, Pakistan. Annual reports and financial statements of 580 companies have been analyzed, and the economists concluded that free cash flows increase the performance of companies. The companies in the study directly relied on their free cash flows to demonstrate profitability of the business to stakeholders.

Despite its gross importance, free cash flow is not the same as profitability. As profitability is a relative notion, it does not prove that the company is worthy to invest into. Businesses can be profitable and close to bankruptcy at a time if there is negative cash flow. Profitability and other dependent variables do not allow to estimate business prospects on the whole because of the essential investments and dividends. But if some surplus funds are available after those expenses have been paid, it clearly indicates that the business makes enough profit to attract potential stakeholders.

   Sep 22

How to analyze the profitability of banks

It is quite easy to define whether the business is profitable or not looking at its retail statistics, exports, and the cost of shares. Potential investors do not have difficulty to estimate whether the company is worth their participation or not. Banks, on the other hand, generate profit in a different way, and it can be challenging to define the financial performance of the bank and its future. Investors traditionally examine price-to-book and price-to-earnings ratio to understand the profitability of banks. But they can also access net interest margin, the loan-to-assets ratio, and the return-on-assets ratio that accurately examine the performance of retail banks.

Net interest margin shows how much the bank has earned on loans and investment securities. These earnings are the primary revenue of a retail bank and they can fairly show its performance. The net interest margin depends on the interest rates of the bank and the source of its assets. The sum of interest and investment minus expenses equals the net interest margin of the bank.

The loan-to-asset ratio shows where the bank gets most of their income. The institution can get it from loans and investments as well as from asset management or trading. Banks with lower loan-to-assets ratios may be better off during economic downturns.

The return-on-assets ratio is an important indicator of profitability of the bank. It indicates the profit of the bank per dollar. Bank assets strongly depend on bank loans, and the per dollar return helps to reconstruct the cash flow of the institution more accurately. Even a small return-on-asset ratio may predict substantial revenues to the bank.

   Sep 22

Empowering women through microfinance

Microfinance first emerged in the 1970s in Bangladesh. The initiative aimed to help people make their own way out of poverty. Small banks started giving small loans to those who could not take a conventional loan and pay interests on it. Founders of microfinance proved that financial institutions can provide services to the poorest without relying on governmental subsidies. They found that poor people had a huge payback moral; about 95% of borrowers repaid their debts on time. But the most visible effect microcredit has made on women. Financially disadvantaged in the developing countries, women need those small loans to become self-employed.

Small financial opportunities for women not only made females more well-off but contributed to eliminating poverty on the large scale. According to the World Bank, societies that discriminate women have higher rates of poverty, slower economic growth, and weaker governance than countries that promote gender equality. Empowering women became a matter of practicality too. Economic studies show that men usually contribute 50-70% of their income to their household while women tend to invest in their families completely. Therefore giving money to women, microfinance banks empower families in the first place.

Financial stability of women is the way to gender equality in the developing world. Economic independence brings decision-making opportunities for women who cease to be a passive object bossed around by their husbands. Education is another important factor that determines the role of women in their household. Microfinance institutions help women get a basic and more advanced education to find a job or get a promotion.

   Sep 22

Risk assessment and decision making in business

In times of crisis, quick and correct decision making can save the business from bankruptcy. An overall risk management always requires compliance, but managers can hardly reverse the crisis by following mandatory requirements. Every particular risk situation has specific circumstances, which requires the organization to deeply understand market conditions and its own risk profile. A profound understanding of daily operations and potential threats requires a proficient governance that results in making helpful decisions.

It is not enough to be a qualified manager to adequately respond to risks. Executives need to learn lessons from former crises and incorporate them into new regulations. Even companies that are too large to fail have to revise their capital buffers to escape financial instability. We commonly blame emerging markets for distressing the global economy, but these are usually multinational corporations that drag financial crises by running complex operations they do not understand completely.

Understanding the complexity of operations in a business is essential to manage operational risks. An internal failure can be no less damaging than the global crisis. For large businesses, like mining or drilling enterprises, the cost of operational errors (oil spills, for example) can be huge enough to cause a long-term damage. Global enterprises operating in developing markets are especially prone to a functional failure if there is little control from the center.

Therefore, companies have plenty of inner and outer risks to avoid. Risk management is a comprehensive strategy that covers all sorts of external and internal issues that can damage the image and operation of the company. That is why regular forecasting real risks is better than complying with the outdated standards to make an impression of an effective risk management.

   Feb 17

Topics for speeches that require a call to order


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   Feb 12

Wildlife conservation essay sample


One of the main reasons why it is important to pay proper attention to wildlife conservation is that all species are related to each other. If some of them extinct, it is going to affect others even though for us it may not seem like it is related. Besides, nature is a complex mechanism. In order to be able to preserve our planet in its present form, we need to understand how this mechanism works. Protecting our natural habitat presupposes having the opportunity to live a comfortable life in future.

There are lots of ways in which one can help. For instance, one can join the National Wildlife Federation or Wildlife Conservation Network. These organizations are numerous and each of them tries to make a difference. What is more, each of us needs help in doing that. Feel free to volunteer. You will see much how much you can actually do to make our planet comfortable for all its inhabitants. If you are scientist, your research may turn out to be really helpful. People need to be aware of those threats to wildlife that exist these days. We need to minimize them. More information on wildlife conservation is available here … orderessay.net

   Feb 06

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   Nov 25

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   Aug 08

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